The poaching depredation to Black Rhino in East and central Africa was to a large extent as a result of demand by the Yemen. Rhino horn was used to make handles for daggers - called Jambiyas - for young men reaching maturity. Today this demand is furnished mainly by buffalo horn, plastic and other synthetic materials, as a result of the unavailability of rhino horn.
According to the International Rhino Foundation, the total African population in 2008 was estimated to be 4,240.
In 2011 the IUCN declared that the Western Black Rhino is extinct.
2.) Borneo Rhino. (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis Harrissoni)
This rhino is a sub specie of the Sumatran Rhino. Borneo is the 3rd largest island in the world is divided between three countries, Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia and lies - just north of Java in South East Asia.
This rhino is critically endangered.
A small population of 13 was discovered in 2006, in the interior forests of Sabah, Malaysia. Mahedi Andau, Director of the Sabah Wildlife Department,says "While the total number of Borneo rhinos remaining is uncertain,
we do know there are very, very few." It is thought optimistically that there are about 25 of these animals left. Habitat loss as well as poaching is also a threat to these rhino.
3.)Greater One Horned Rhino, or Indian Rhino. (Rhinoceros Unicornis)
This animal is the second largest rhino specie after the White Rhino.
One-horned or Indian rhinos once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent, along the Indus, Ganges
and Brahmaputra River basins, from Pakistan to the Indian-Burmese border.
They may have also existed in Myanmar (formerly Burma), southern China and Indochina.
Today, their habitats are restricted by human settlements,so they often occur adjacent to cultivated areas, pastures, and
A further risk to the Indian Rhino is the fact that about 70% of its population is in the Kaziranga National
Park, which is to rhino poachers advantage, as these animals are concentrated in one relatively small area.
If a disease should break out or civil unrest, or further habitat loss due to human population growth demands, these factors could have
a devastating impact on the Indian rhino's status.
There are less than 3000 of these rhino left in the world. These Rhinos are now extinct in Pakistan.
4.) Javan Rhino. (Rhinoceros sondaicus). It is also known as the Lesser One Horned Rhinoceros
There are at this time (2012) an estimated 35 Javan Rhino left. The Vietnamese sub specie is now extinct, consequently the Javan Rhino is the most threatened of the rhino species.
The Javan Rhino was once the most widespread of all Asian rhinos, and they ranged from the islands of Java and Sumatra,
throughout Southeast Asia,into India and China.
The species is critically endangered, with only one known population in the wild occuring in the Ujung Kulon National Park at the western tip of Java in Indonesia.
5.) Sumatran Rhino ((Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)
Sumatran Rhino once lived in rainforests, swamps and cloud forests all across India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China.
Most of the Sumatran rhino's body is covered with A coat of reddish-brown hair. This rhino is the most primative of all the rhino species in the world and is a very close relative of the Woolly Rhinoceros that lived during the ice-ages.
They are now highly endangered, with only six viable population groups in the wild: Sumatra has four groups, Borneo one group, and there is also
one in the Malay Peninsula.
It is difficult to determine what the current population is because they are solitary animals and are widely distributed across their areas. It is estimated that there are between 130 to 190 of these Sumtran Rhino left in the world.
6.) Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum simum)
The name white does not refer to colour, which is in fact greyish-brown. There is a theory that the name
is derived from the Dutch word 'wijd', which describes it's wide upper lip.
There is no proof of this however and there is no literary reference to Wyd-Renoster or any other name of this kind in any
written document. It is therefore highly unlikely that the term 'White' in White Rhinoceros has been derived from a Dutch or
The exact source of the white in White Rhino is still unknown.
The White Rhino is the biggest of Africa's rhino species and it has an elongated skull to facilitate getting it's wide lips down low enough to graze. It also has a large hump on it's withers for muscle attachment necessary to cope with the cantilever effect of the elongated skull.
This rhino is the only success story of a rhino specie being rescued from the brink of extinction. At the turn of the 20th centuary there were thought to be only 30 - 50 southern White Rhinos left alive. As a result of conservation efforts this specie is now the most abundant rhino specie in the world, around about 20 000, occuring mainly in South Africa. We will examine this in more detail further on.
7.) Northern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottini)
This is a sub specie and is the most threatened of all the worlds rhinos. In July 2008 the International Rhino Foundation reported that they believed that this rhino specie was now extinct in the wild. There are only 7 left alive in the world and are now living in the Ol Petjeta Conservancy in Kenya.